Paper 11

Question 1: Migration

For an example of international migration which you have studied, name the countries between which people moved. Explain why many people made the decision to migrate. You should refer both to pull and to push factors.

The Syrian Refugee Migration: from Syria to Germany

  • 13.5 million people in Syria need humanitarian assistance due to a violent civil war that began in 2011.
  • 4.8 million Syrians are refugees, and 6.1 million are displaced within Syria; half of those affected are children.
  • Threatened by barrel bombings and shootings: destruction of houses, loss of life (family members killed)
  • Many face political persecution: government tortures civilians
  • Others are fleeing from religious persecution: radical groups such as IS (which has trained child soldiers and performed extra-judicial executions)
  • Many refugees seek asylum in Germany (800,000 registered in 2015)
  • Germany protects and promotes human rights: provides food, shelter, education
  • Germany is economically stable: low unemployment rate, good job market, good career chances as a result of an ageing population

Question 2: Squatter settlements

In many LEDCs squatter settlements have grown up. For a named example of an LEDC city, describe the main features of one of its squatter settlements.

Favelas in Rio de Janiero

  • 1 in 6 inhabitants of Rio de Janiero live in squatter settlements such as Rocinha.
  • Having built their own homes from dumps and scrapyards, they are poorly protected when it rains.
  • Mostly located on steep slopes, flimsy homes are built close together, creating a fire hazard.

Question 3: River landforms

Explain how an oxbow lake is formed. You should include fully labelled diagram(s).

An oxbow lake is a river landform that is formed in multiple steps. In the middle course of a river, meanders may form due to lateral erosion. Once a bend in the river course has formed, it is widened by the helical flow of the river, which results in deposition in the inner bends (creating a slip-off slope) and erosion in the outer bends (creating river cliffs). The combined action of erosion and deposition narrows the meander neck until the river cuts through the neck (usually during a flood) and uses the shorter course. (After the flood retreats) deposition occurs on the banks of the new course of the river, causing the old meander to be blocked by sand and rocks. This leaves an oxbow lake.

Google Image Result for Abenteuer Alaska, Wild Alaska, Landschaftsfotos, National Wildlife

Image from: Flickr by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters, License: Attribution 2.0 Generic

Question 4:  Plate tectonics

For a named example which you have studied, explain why people live close to a

Living near volcanoes, Iceland

  • Fertile volcanic soils support agriculture, especially the cultivation of fodder crops
  • Geothermal energy, eg. from Krafla Power Station, accounts for nearly one third of Iceland’s energy production and is used for heating houses and to provide a supply of electricity to local industries
  • Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and volcanic attractions such as the geysirs and hotsprings in Haukadalur provide opportunities for employment in tourism
  • Iceland’s government has invested into prediction techniques and residents are willing to take the risk

Question 5: Tourism

For a named area which you have studied, explain how tourism is damaging the natural

Venice, Italy

  • A major problem in Venice is cruise tourism, with massive cruise ships bringing 60,000 visitors to the city each day.
  • The water displaced by cruise ships acts as a pump for the seabed, encouraging flooding and shaking even the San Marco basilica.
  • Also, the wash churned up by the ships is hollowing out the seabed and gradually turning the lagoon into an inlet of the Adriatic
  • Moreover, cruise ships release oil into the ocean, which may threaten the species and ecological systems living in the lagoon.

Question 6: Agricultural systems

For an example of small-scale subsistence farming at a named location which you have
studied, describe the farming processes.

Shifting cultivation in the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil

File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
Map of Brazil
  • Shifting cultivation is practised by tribes such as Yanomami,who live in rural areas in Northern Brazil, eg. in the state of Roraima
  • These tribes clear the land by slash and burn methods (using hand tools such as machetes to cut down the rainforest vegetation, which is then burnt to add fertiliser to the soil.
  • The soil is turned over by hand (simple ploughing ) and the seeds are planted.
  • The areas are watered and weeded daily by hand until the crops are ready to be harvested using a sickle.
  • Outputs include root vegetables such as cassava, which are used to feed the family/tribe and are not sold.
  • As the plot of land loses its fertility, the area is abandoned and left to nature, allowing the original vegation to occur, while the tribe moves to another plot of land for 3-5 years.

Paper 12

Question 1: Population

For a named country which you have studied, explain why the birth rate is high.


  • Mali had a birth rate of 44 births per 1000 in 2015.
  • As a primary sector based rural economy, children in Mali are considered an economic asset, as they can work on farms and thus contribute to the family income.
  • Moreover, children may be viewed as a form of social security, because state-funded pensions are virtually non-existent, and children support their parents in old age.
  • Birth rates may also counter for high infant mortality rates, as parents have many children in the hope that some of them survive.
  • Additionally, a lacking awareness of family planning and limited access to contraception, and abortion may contribute to high birth rates.
  • Some cultural traditions and religions oppose family planning and contraception.
  • Also from certain cultural perspectives, the gender role of women may include marrying early, staying at home and bearing children.

Question 2: Settlement geography

For a named example of a town or city which you have studied, explain how urban
sprawl has changed the surrounding areas.


Map of Nottingham, © Plamen Agov,
  • Traffic congestion on radial roads into city: as a result of commuters from villages like Burton Joyce
  • Loss of farmland around Ruddington due to the development of an industrial park
  • Atmospheric pollution from increased traffic along A60
  • Destruction of Edwalton Forest (fringe forest) as a result of housing developments


Question 3: Weathering

Describe and explain the process of freeze-thaw weathering. Include fully labelled diagrams.

File:Mechanical weathering.png
Freeze-thaw weathering
  • Freeze-thaw action (frost shattering) occurs mainly in alpine regions (cold climate) where diurnal temperature variation is high.
  • During the day, as temperatures are above 0°C, water runs into the cracks of a cliff.
  • As the temperature falls below 0°C, water freezes (becomes ice) and expands by around 10%, exerting a pressure of up to 2100 kg/cm² on the rock wall.
  • Rocks can withstand only pressures of up to 500kg/cm² so they are likely to break, especially, as the alternating process of freezing and cooling exerts varying levels of pressure, thus straining the rock.
  • Eventually, cracks will be widened and parts of the cliff will break off, possibly accumulating as scree that might form a talus cone.

Question 4: Tropical rainforests

For a named area of tropical rainforest which you have studied, describe the ways in
which it benefits people.

Amazonia, Amazon rainforest

  • Tribal groups such as Erigbaagtsa provide food for themselves by hunting and
  • Rubber tapping takes place in areas close to Amazon river and latex is exported
    from Manaus.
  • Trees and other plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen
  • Various species of hardwoods such as mahogany are logged, and can be used by carpenters to make furniture .

Question 5: Industrial sectors

For a named area where manufacturing industry is important, describe its impacts on
the natural environment.

Cubatao, Brazil

  • There are about 30 major industrial facilities in the vicinity that release fumes from their factories.
  • 473 tons of carbon monoxide, and 41 tons of nitrogen oxide are released every day, causing air pollution that kills insects and pollutes rivers.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions may contribute to global warming.
  • Also, the land that is used by the manufacturing industries may have previously been part of the natural environment, and as such the construction of factories may have destroyed animals’ natural habitats.

Question 6: Energy

For a named country or area which you have studied, describe one way in which energy
is produced.

Wind energy in Germany

  • In northern Germany, particularly in coastal areas, multiple wind mills are grouped in areas known as wind farms, to harness renewable energy.
  • For example, wind mills near Apelnstedt village have large rotors that are turned by the wind.
  • The energy from the rotation of the blades spins a shaft, which is hooked up to a generator and converts the kinetic energy into electric energy (electricity).

Paper 13

Question 1: Population

For a named country which you have studied, describe the problems caused by an
increase in the percentage of the population over the age of 65.

United Kingdom

In the UK, the percentage of elderly dependents (+65 years) has increased by 3% from 15% in 1980 to 18% in 2014.

An increase in the percentage of elderly dependents is a strain on the working population as higher taxation is required to support the pensions of the elderly and to fund services such as health care and specialised homes.

Government-funded pensions may have to shrink to cover everybody, leaving many people with less to spend (and some in poverty).

In contrast, services for younger people, such as schools, are underused. These services may then have to close (eg. Woodly School in North Yorkshire which shut in 2012 due to a lack of students).

As a result, some people may be left unemployed. Also, there are not enough economically active people, causing a lack of workforce and making it harder to defend the country.

Question 2: Urban Sprawl

For a named example of a town or city in an MEDC which you have studied, describe
the problems which occur in the rural-urban fringe as a result of urban sprawl.


Map of Nottingham, © Plamen Agov,
  • Traffic congestion on radial roads into city: as a result of commuters from villages like Burton Joyce
  • Loss of farmland around Ruddington due to the development of an industrial park
  • Atmospheric pollution from increased traffic along A60
  • Destruction of Edwalton Forest (fringe forest) as a result of housing developments


Question 3: Coastal landforms

For a named area of coral reef which you have studied, describe the conditions which
led to its formation.


  • Coral reefs form in water with temperatures above 20°C, which can be found along the shores of the Indian Ocean.
  • Coral reefs have formed in the shallow areas of Beau Vallon Bay, which is only 10 metres deep and sediment-free, meaning that sunlight can penetrate to allow for the growth of photosynthesising algae.
  • Also, Vallon Bay is unpolluted due to the limited industrialisation in the surrounding area, meaning that the lack of toxic chemicals leaves a plentiful supply of oxygen in the water.

Question 4:  Weathering

Explain why weathering of rocks is more rapid in humid tropical regions than in temperate regions. You should refer to examples of different types of weathering in your answer.

  • Tropical regions such as the Amazon rainforest have high rainfall which encourages forms of chemical weathering such as oxidation, where iron in rocks reacts with oxygen and H2O.
  • Also, the rate of chemical weathering is higher in areas with hot temperatures, doubling with every rise of 10 °C.
  • There is more biological weathering in tropical areas with high plant growth, as there is an increased chance of tree roots creating cracks in rocks.
  • Higher temperatures and rainfall cause more rapid release of CO2 from decay of plants.

Question 5: Tourism

For a named area which you have studied, explain how physical and human factors
have encouraged the growth of the tourist industry.

File:Portuguese beach Algarve.jpg

Algarve, Portugal

  • The Algarve has an appealing climate with long hours of sunshine especially from June to September. Temperatures average at over 20°C during the summer months when rainfall is low
  • Natural attractions such as the cliffs at Lagos provide a spectacular view and sandy bays are ideal for sunbathing
  • Resorts like Albufeira with restaurants allow visitors to spend multiple nights in the region
  • Good transportation has been developed to meet visitors demands, including a network of tarred roads and Faro airport for international travel

Question 6: Agricultural systems

For a farm in a named area which you have studied, describe and explain the land use.
You should refer to physical and human factors.

Wheat farming in the Canadian Prairies

  • Around 2 million km² are available in the states of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan to grow a wide variety of cereals, including wheat.
  • The deep, fertile Chernozem soils are ideal for these crops, and the sub-zero temperatures (cold climate) in winter break up the soil to ease ploughing.
  • Little labour is required as large machinery such as tractors and a combine harvester can be used for harvesting.
  • Cereal crops are exported for bread making through the Great Lakes.