Question 1: Population distribution
For a named country which you have studied, describe the problems caused by an increase
in the percentage of people over the age of 65.
- Over 20% of the Japanese population is over the age of 65.
- This is a strain for the working class, as higher taxation is required to fund the pensions of the increasing percentage of elderly.
- Besides, more money is needed to invest in care homes and specialised healthcare.
- Also, the lack of an innovative workforce causes stagnation in electronics industries and there is a large need to attract Chinese and Filipino workers.
- The limited supply of workers means that large MNC’s may need to increase the rates of pay.
- Furthermore, services for young people are underused, causing schools to close.
Question 2: Housing characteristics
For a named town or city which you have studied, describe the location and
characteristics of two contrasting housing areas.
In the city centre, there are large, multi-storey buildings such as Derwent House.
Most of the buildings have been built within the last 10 years, and have large glass walls. Most houses are flats.
In New Totley (in the SW of Sheffield), there is a lot of semi-detached housing. There is a mix of old, traditional architecture and new houses. Housing in New Totley is more expensive than in the city centre.
Question 3: Rivers
For a named river which you have studied, explain what has been done to reduce flooding.
- High levees were built to increase the capacity of the river
- Banks were raised to protect cities like Memphis where the river flows at a higher level than the flood plain.
- Trees were planted in Tennessee Valley so less water will get to the river as more evapotranspiration occurs and so the flow will not be so flashy.
- River meanders were cut off between New Orleans and Memphis to reduce flooding of agricultural land.
Question 4: Hazards
Volcanic eruptions are another natural hazard.
For a named example of a volcanic eruption which you have studied, describe its effects.
- Eyjafjallajökull is a stratovolcano in Iceland, located approximately 125 km SE of the capital Reykjavik.
- Lava eruptions in March 2010 were followed by an explosive eruption on April 14th 2010.The lava flows damaged many homes and roads and services were disrupted due to evacuation measures.
- Flooding was caused as glacial ice melted and torrents of water were flowing down the slopes of the land. Also, ash covered large plots of agricultural land, damaging the crops.
- The massive ash cloud blocked air traffic in large parts of Europe for several days, leaving tourists and business people stranded at their destinations.
Question 5: Agriculture
Name an area which you have studied which experiences water shortages.
Explain how the water shortages cause problems for the people who live in your chosen area.
- Crops die as a result of insufficient irrigation due to a lack of water and lack of fodder crops increases cattle deaths.
- Consequently, starvation may occur due to lack of food supply, increasing hunger-related deaths.
- Limited access to water hampers industrial activities such as textile production in Addis Ababa. This means that less textile can be sold at the market, so less money is distributed in the economy, potentially leading to decline in other sectors as well.
- Besides, as people are forced to use the same water for multiple purposes (eg. washing and bathing), diseases such as typhoid are more likely to occur
Question 6: Global warming
The use of energy may increase global warming.
Describe the likely impacts of global warming on named areas which you have studied.
You should refer to the impacts on people and the natural environment.
- Polar ice melts, destroying the Arctic and Antarctic habitats, threatening polar bears (Arctic) and penguins (Antarctic)
- Rise in sea level may cause flooding of coastal lowland areas such as the Netherlands
- Increased temperatures can reduce snowfall in Alps, thereby threatening winter sports industries
- Crops such as vines can be grown in areas in Southern England which were not previously hot or sunny enough
- Tropical diseases may spread towards the poles eg. malaria in southern Europe
Question 1: Population policy
For a named example of a country which you have studied, describe the policies used by the
government to reduce natural population growth rates.
One Family One Child Policy 1979-2015 in China
- The One Family One Child Policy was implemented from 1979 to 2015 to reduce rapid population growth and lessen overpopulation.
- Families were incentivised to have no more than one child, by means of free contraception, salary bonuses and preferential employment, free healthcare and schooling.
- Couples who did not adhere to the policy were penalised financially (fines of up to US$400 and salary reduction) and were often forced to abort their babes even in the late stages of pregnancy.
- The policy managed to reduce China’s fertility rate to 1.7, thereby preventing food shortages and extreme poverty; however, a preference for boys promoted female foeticide and has resulted in an imbalanced sex ratio
Question 2: Urban areas
In many towns and cities there have been changes in shopping facilities in recent years.
Describe one recent change in shopping facilities in a named town or city which you have
studied. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this change for the people who live in
the town or city.
Arkadia shopping mall, Warsaw
- The Arkadia covers a total area of 287000m², and at the time of its construction, it was the biggest shopping mall in Europe.
- The Arkadia offers people greater shopping choice including Lacoste, Gant, Peek&Cloppenburg and Tommy Hilfiger, as well as high street chains like Zara, Espirit and Kappahl.
- The Arkadia is easily accessible as it is served by 15 bus routes and 10 tram lines, as well as having 4000 free parking spaces for cars, however, the increase in transporation has increased traffic congestion on roads to the centre
Question 3: Rivers
For a named river which you have studied, describe the advantages and difficulties of living
on its flood plain.
- Fertile soils due to occasional flooding contribute to high rice yields.
- Water from the river can be used for irrigation of crops during the dry season when north east monsoon winds blow overland.
- The river allows residents to make an income from fishing and shrimp farming.
- The flat land allows for the easy construction of houses and roads, however, infrastructure is more vulnerable to flooding than on higher land.
- Also, the need to bridge the river increases the coast of road construction.
- Furthermore, competition for space due to the high population density increases land prices.
Question 4: Hazards
In many parts of the world weather and climate may cause natural disasters. These include drought and tropical storms. For either a drought or a tropical storm which you have studied, describe the impacts on a named area which you have studied.
Drought in Ethiopia
- Drought which extends into neighbouring Eritrea reduced crop yields
- Lack of fodder crops to feed cattle causes cattle to die, especially in the northern reigion of Tigray
- Death of cattle as well as a lack of food crops results in food shortages. This is particularly problematic as more than 83% of the population live in rural areas and rely heavily on subsistence farming
- The situation is worsened by overcultivation (fields are not given fallow time) and overgrazing (too many cattle on a plot of land)
- Lack of investment in irrigation and use of traditional farming practices (eg. ploughing up and down slopes) encourages soil erosion
- Distribution of food is poorly managed by the government
Question 5: Tourism
Name an area which you have studied where the environment is at risk from tourism.
Explain how tourism is damaging the natural environment of your chosen area.
- On the Maldives, tropical coconut palms are destroyed for building hotels.
- Consequently, the ecosystem is threatened as food chains are destroyed or disrupted. For example, lizards loose their natural habitat.
- Animals are also scared away by traffic.
- Besides, a ferry from Male every 10 minutes pollutes the seas, threatening the corals. The reefs are also destroyed as tourists take samples home and leave litter on the beaches that may kill reef fish.
- The atmosphere is polluted by the incineration of waste.
Question 6: Pollution
For a named country or area which you have studied, describe the causes and effects of
- Oil spills from ships cause oil to clog up the gills of fish, resulting in suffocation
- Tankers washing out their tanks in the Thames estuary have polluted beaches along the Essex coast, reducing the number of tourist visits in the area
- Indstrial waste from the Ruhr valley (Germany) is dumped into the North Sea via the Rhine river and threatens human health along the coast of Rotterdam
Question 1: Population growth
The size of the population in a country may change as a result of natural growth.
For a named country which you have studied, explain why the rate of natural population
growth is high.
- Uganda has a population growth rate of more than 3% each year, due to its high birth rate of 44 births per 1000.
- Low use of contraception due to limited access and poverty
- Low education standards, especially among females
- Low socio-economic status of women
- Early marriage
- Political statements may encourage more babies as some areas in Uganda have a low population density
Question 2: Settlements
Name two settlements of different population size which you have studied. Compare the
shops and services provided in the two settlements which you have named.
London and Thaxted, UK
- In London, higher order shops and services are all along major roads like Oxford Street, whereas in Thaxted there are mainly low order services along the main street.
- In Thaxted there is a newagent a general store and a butcher, but in London there are department stores such as Harrods.
- London provides more enterntainment than Thaxted, as it offers cinemas and theatres in West End compared to the small pubs Thaxted
- In London, there are indoor malls such as Westfield vs.individual small shops in Thaxted.
Question 3: Coastal hazards
Describe the impacts of a natural hazard on a named coastal area which you have studied.
Hurricane Katrina (tropical storm), USA
Hurricane Katrina made landfall on 25th August 2005 killing 1836 people.
- The Superdome at New Orleans was used as a refugee camp for people who were homeless as a result of having to evacuate their flooded homes.
- Levees failed to resist the force of the storm surge in New Orleans, leading to widespread flooding, so it was difficult for people to escape the area due to flooded roads.
- Services were disrupted: no electricity and gas in New Orleans for up to 6 months after the incident
Question 4: Weather, Climate & Ecosystems
For a named area of tropical desert which you have studied, describe the features of the
natural vegetation and explain how it can survive in the desert climate.
Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India
- Vegetation in the Thar desert is sparse and scattered, as only few species are adapted to survive in the exteme climate.
- The Ber tree has a rapidly developing taproot system to survive in drought conditions; however, vegetaion is mostly limited to thorny bushes and shrubs.
- Cacti have thick stems to store water during dry spells, and lack leaves to reduce evapotranspiration. Instead, they are equipped with spikes as a protection against predators.
- Xerophilious grass has a small surface area to reduce water loss.
- Flowering plants have seeds that remain dormant during dry spells.
Question 5: Agriculture
Choose an example which you have studied of large-scale commercial farming.
Name an area where your chosen farming type takes place. Describe the inputs, processes
and outputs of this farming system.
Wheat farming in the Canadian Prairies
- Around 2 million km² are available in the states of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan to grow a wide variety of cereals, including wheat.
- The deep, fertile Chernozem soils are ideal for these crops, and the sub-zero temperatures (cold climate) in winter break up the soil to ease ploughing.
- Little labour is required as large machinery such as tractors and a combine harvester can be used for harvesting.
- Cereal crops are exported for bread making through the Great Lakes.
Question 6: Water supplies
For a named country or area which you have studied, describe the ways in which water
supplies are being developed
- In South Africa, water supplies are being developed by building reservoirs such as Inyaka Dam (2002) with a capacity of 123 700 cubic metres.
- Also, water is extracted from underground at the Cape Flats aquifer to supply water to Capetown in future years.
- Furthermore, water supplies are imported from Lesotho by building pipelines from Katse Dam.