Paper 11:

Question 1: Population distribution

For a named country which you have studied, describe and explain the distribution of its


  • The North is sparsely populated due to lacking water supply for domestic and agricultural use.
  • The South is densely populated due to the proximity to international boundaries (eg. Ivory Coast) for trade and the south is better served by transport and communications such as the airport at Bamako
  • The valley of the Niger river is densely populated as it is an attractive area to settle due to the fertility and gentle profile of the land.

Question 2: Hierarchy of settlementsCase Study: Map of the UK

Describe the hierarchy of settlements in a named country or area which you have studied.


  • In the UK, there are more small villages than large towns, especially in rural areas such as Norfolk.
  • There are several large cities in each part of the country eg. Birmingham and Norwich in England, Cardiff in Wales, Glasgow in Scotland and Belfast in Northern Ireland.
  • The largest city is the capital of London, with a population of 8.7 million in 2015.

Question 3: Coasts

Name an area which you have studied where tropical storms occur.
Describe the problems which they cause for people living in your chosen area.

Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh

  • People have to walk long distances to find fresh water as local groundwater sources are
    flooded by the Ganges
  • Cyclones damage rice crops cultivated on the Brahmaputra flood plain, leading to a lack of food. As a result of the limited food supply, deaths occur due to starvation and malnutrition.
  • Housing is destroyed by strong onshore winds, so people have to be evacuated and live in refugee camps in Dhaka
  • Roads are flooded or blocked, so aid cannot be sent in and rescue efforts are often delayed.

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

For a named area of tropical desert which you have studied, describe and explain the
characteristics of its climate.

Thar desert, India

Thar Desert Map
Thar Desert, by Globalhistorycullen, License: CC BY-SA 3.0
  • The Thar desert has a latitude of 28° north of the equator, where the curving of the Earth is low, so light and heat entering the atmosphere is concentrated.
  • The Thar Desert is dry as convection current cause the air to sink at latitudes of 15° to 30° so it warms and can hold more moisture.
  • The Thar desert is also found in an area of rainshadow, due to its location on the leeward seide of the Highlands in Pakistan and the Himalayas in the North.
  • Besides the Thar desert is located in an area of high pressure (formed by stable fronts), meaning it receives little frontal rainfall.

Question 5: Agriculture

Name an area where large-scale commercial farming takes place.
Describe the inputs, processes and outputs of this farming system.

Wheat farming in the Canadian Prairies

  • Around 2 million km² are available in the states of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan to grow a wide variety of cereals, including wheat.
  • The deep, fertile Chernozem soils are ideal for these crops, and the sub-zero temperatures (cold climate) in winter break up the soil to ease ploughing.
  • Little labour is required as large machinery such as tractors and a combine harvester can be used for harvesting.
  • Cereal crops are exported for bread making through the Great Lakes.

Question 6: Agriculture

For a named country or area which you have studied, describe the ways in which energy
supplies are being developed.


  • The UK emphasises on the development of renewable energy supplies by using wind, water and sunlight.
  • Tidal power is being developed in bays and estuaries of the Severn river.
  • HEP is being developed in mountainous areas with high precipitation such as the pumped storage scheme at Dinorwic in Snowdonia.
  • Off the coast of East Anglia and  in Morecambe Bay off-shore wind farms are developed, and in mountainous areas such as the Pennines, on-shore wind parks are being built.

Paper 12:

Question 1: Overpopulation

For a named country which you have studied, describe the problems caused by


  • Overpopulation in Bangladesh resulted in overcrowded areas with traffic congestion as there are too many vehicles on the the roads, especially in cities such as Dhaka.
  • Vehicle emissions, industrial discharge and burning of fossil fuels have resulted in air pollution, while the ground water has been polluted due to arsenic.
  • Furthermore, shortage of food lead to overcultivation on the flood plains of the Ganges river, causing lower yields and soil exhaustion.
  • Another major problem is the widespread deforestation for firewood on the slopes of the Himalayas.
  • The capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka, also suffers from severe housing shortages due to mass urbanisation.

Question 2: Urban areas

Name a city in an LEDC and describe what has been done to improve the quality of life of the
people who live there.

Rio de Janiero, Brazil

  • Residents have been granted property rights to the land they live on.
  • Water supplies have been improved by laying water mains to the favelas.
  • Employment opportunities have been created by paying people to clean up litter in favelas such as Rocinha.
  • The government has invested in building schools and an anti-violence scheme encourages children to trade their toy guns for books.
  • Transport infrastructure has been improved by building tarred roads to shanty towns on mountain slopes on edge of the city.

Question 3: Weather, Climate & Ecosystems

For a named area of tropical rainforest which you have studied, describe and explain the
characteristics of its climate.

Map of Borneo
Map of Borneo, © By Peter Fitzgerald/Joelf

Tropical Rainforest in Borneo

  • The average temperature is very high, at 29°C throughout the year due to the location close to the equator, which contributes to concentrated sun rays.
  • The heat from the sun encourages evaporation, causing the air mass to be very saturated (high humidity) – often leading to radiation fog.
  • The tropical rainforest in Borneo receives 3000mm of rainfall annually (mostly convectional) due to the daily development of cumulonimbus clouds by condensation.

Question 4: Plate tectonics

Name an area which you have studied where there has been an earthquake. Describe the
impacts of this earthquake.

Haiti earthquake, 2010

  • Haiti Earthquake Map.pngA 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti on January 12th, 2010; its epicentre was merely 25 km from Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince. The major earthquake was followed by several aftershocks up to a magnitude of 5.0 on the Richter scale.
  • The earthquake resulted in massive loss of life (approximately 230,000 deaths)
  • 180,000 homes and around 5,00 schools were destroyed
  • Damage at the airport delayed international aid by over 24 hours. This meant that people were forced to drink polluted water, promoting the spread of diseases suchas cholera.
  • 1 in 5 people lost their jobs because so many buildings were destroyed.  Haiti’s largest industry, clothing was one of the worst affected

Question 5: Agriculture

For a named area or country which you have studied which suffers from famine, explain why
there is a shortage of food.


  • Ethiopia MapDrought which extends into neighbouring Eritrea reduced crop yields
  • Lack of fodder crops to feed cattle causes cattle to die, especially in the northern reigion of Tigray
  • Death of cattle as well as a lack of food crops results in food shortages. This is particularly problematic as more than 83% of the population live in rural areas and rely heavily on subsistence farming
  • The situation is worsened by overcultivation (fields are not given fallow time) and overgrazing (too many cattle on a plot of land)
  • Lack of investment in irrigation and use of traditional farming practices (eg. ploughing up and down slopes) encourages soil erosion
  • Distribution of food is poorly managed by the government

Question 6: Tourism

Name an area which you have studied where the tourist industry is important. Describe the
benefits and problems of the tourist industry for local people.

Majorca, Spain

Case Study Impacts of Tourism in Majorca
Majorca (Balearic Islands), by Hansen CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Resorts such as Iberostar Alcudia Park in Playa de Muro provide employment opportunities for the locals, eg. as waiters in the restaurants, or as part of the entertainment team.
  • However, employment is often only seasonal, as there are fewer visitors in the colder months of January and February, meaning that people have no source of income during the winter months.
  • Tourism has lead to the multiplier effect, encouraging the growth of other sectors, such as transport (the airport at Palma is one of the most modern airports in Spain).
  • The government can spend foreign exchange on the development of schools and hospitals.
  • On the other hand, locals in Palma complained about noise from late-night partying and litter dropped on the beaches.

Paper 13:

Question 1: Migration

Name an example of a country which has attracted large numbers of international migrants.
Explain the pull factors which have attracted people to your chosen country.


  • Reknowned universities such as Harvard and Yale attract students from all over the world.
  • Good employment opportunities for both high and low skilled labour eg. start-ups in Silicon Valley
  • No language barrier for a large part of the world’s population
  • Good quality and cheap food supply
  • Companies usually offer healthcare as part of the employment.

 Question 2: Settlements

Many settlements have grown over the years into large urban areas. For a named example of
a large settlement, explain the reasons for its growth.

Liverpool, UKLocation of Liverpool in the UK

  • Liverpool is a historic maritime city in northwest England located on the estuary of the Mersey river which provides deep water and sheltered anchorage for ships.
  • The port on the West coast of the UK encourages trade to the USA via the Atlantic ocean.
  • The Manchester Ship Canal allowed boats to transport finished goods directly to the respective markets in the city of Manchester.
  • Flat, coastal land enabled the development of road and rail communications for transport of products to the hinterland for industrial use and cotton manufacturing.

Question 3: Hazards

An earthquake is an example of a natural hazard. Choose an example of one of the
a tropical storm, a drought.
For a named area, describe the causes and effects of your chosen hazard.

Hurricane Katrina  (tropical storm), USA

  • Lanfall of Hurricane Katrina
    Landfall of Hurricane Katrina: Case Study Map

    Tropical depression SE of the Bahamas and a storm wave

  • Depression drifted towards Florida over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico
  • Higher water temperatures provided energy to the storm, which made landfall in Florida
  • Second landfall occurred in Louisiana
  • Levees failed to resist the force of the storm surge in New Orleans, leading to widespread flooding
  • More than 1000 deaths, and 0.5 million houses damaged
  • Services were disrupted: no electricity and gas in New Orleans for up to 6 months after the incident

Question 4: Rivers

For a named river you have studied, explain what has been done to reduce flooding.

Mississippi River

  • High levees were built to increase the capacity of the river
  • Banks were raised to protect cities like Memphis where the river flows at a higher level than the flood plain.
  • Trees were planted in Tennessee Valley so less water will get to the river as more evapotranspiration occurs and so the flow will not be so flashy.
  • River meanders were cut off between New Orleans and Memphis to reduce flooding of agricultural land.

Question 5: Pollution

Water may be polluted by human activities. For a named example which you have studied,
describe the causes and effects of pollution of a river, lake or sea area.

North SeaNorth Sea

  • Oil spills from ships cause oil to clog up the gills of fish, resulting in suffocation
  • Tankers washing out their tanks in the Thames estuary have polluted beaches along the Essex coast, reducing the number of tourist visits in the area
  • Indstrial waste from the Ruhr valley (Germany) is dumped into the North Sea via the Rhine river and threatens human health along the coast of Rotterdam

Question 6: Tourism

Give an example of a manufacturing or processing industry and name an area where this
type of industry is located. Explain the factors which have attracted this type of industry to the area.

PakSteels, Pakistan Iron and Steel Industry

  • A large plot of flat, cheap land was available at Pipri, near Gharo Creek.
  • Port Qasim (which has a natural harbour) and the Karachi-Pipri-Kotri railway (and metalled roads network) allowed for the import of iron ore.
  • Energy could be obtained from Pipri Thermal Power Station and Karachi Nuclear Power Station, while water for making steel was brought from Lake Haleji
  • Labour was available from Karachi and the USSR provided economic assistance (technical expertise and capital)
  • The area was also close to a market, with many steel-using industries (including tool making) in Karachi.