Paper 11:

Question 1: Migration

For an example of international migration which you have studied, explain why many people
made the decision to migrate. You should name the countries between which people migrated
and refer both to pull and to push factors.

The Syrian Refugee Migration: from Syria to Germany

  • 13 million Syrians
  • 800,000 registered in Germany in 2015
  • Threatened by barrel bombings and shootings: destruction of houses, loss of life (family members killed)
  • Many face political persecution: government tortures civilians
  • Others are fleeing from religious persecution: radical groups such as IS (which has trained child soldiers and performed extra-judicial executions)
  • Many refugees seek asylum in Germany
  • Germany protects and promotes human rights: provides food, shelter, education
  • Germany is economically stable: low unemployment rate, good job market, good career chances as a result of an ageing population

Question 2: Growth of settlements

Many settlements have grown into large urban areas.
For a named example of a large urban area which you have studied, explain the reasons for
its growth.

Liverpool, UKhttps://i1.wp.com/ian.macky.net/pat/map/gb/gb_blu.gif

  • Liverpool is a historic maritime city in northwest England located on the estuary of the Mersey river which provides deep water and sheltered anchorage for ships.
  • The port on the West coast of the UK encourages trade to the USA via the Atlantic ocean.
  • Flat, coastal land enabled the development of road and rail communications for transport of products to the hinterland, where industrial towns were founded.
  • The Manchester Ship Canal allowed boats to transport finished goods directly to the respective markets in the city of Manchester.

Question 3: Coasts

Explain how one of the following has formed in a named area which you have studied:
• a spit;
• an area of coastal sand dunes.
You should use labelled diagrams in your answer.

Spurn Head, Holderness Coast (spit)

spurn head management
Holderness Coast
  • Spurn head is a sand and shingle ridge that extends from the headland south of Easington.
  • It has been formed along the Holderness coast, because prevailing winds from the North resulted in wave refraction.
  • Waves approached the coastline at an oblique angle, but were refracted at 90° off the coast.
  • Therefore sediments moved in a zig-zag fashion along the coast, and were transported to the South until they deposited in the sheltered mouth of the Humber estuary (due to the protection from the bend in the coastline).

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

For a named tropical desert, explain how and why the natural environment is threatened by
human activities.

Thar desert, India

Thar Desert, by Globalhistorycullen, License: CC BY-SA 3.0
  • The Thar Desert is threatened by excessive irrigation which leads to salinization. Therefore plants can not take up water from th soil, as the soil has greater concentrations of solute than the roots.
  • Soil quality is also decreasing as manure is used as an alternative fuel for firewood rather than to sustain nutrient-rich, fertile soils.
  • Furthermore, population pressure results in overcultivation and overgrazing, especially around cities like Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, damaging the natural vegetation.
  • The desert environment is also threatened by tourist attractions such as dune bashing. The toyotarisation disturbs animals, kills vegetation and creates dust stroms.
  • Also, tourists may dump waste in the desert, poisoning flora and fauna.

Question 5: Tourism

Explain why tourism has developed in an area you have studied, referring to physical and human attractions.

Majorca, Spain

Majorca (Balearic Islands), by Hansen CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers with average temperatures at least
    25 °C and mild winters with no frost and snow
  • Sandy beaches and warm water in the Mediterranean sea allow for activities such as sunbathing, swimming and water sports.
  • Historical buildings such as the cathedral at Palma may attract visitors willing to explore the local culture.
  • Enterntainment facilities have been built to add to the natural attractions, eg. Marineland (theme park) in Calvia
  • Various types of accomodation, ranging from resorts such as Iberostar Alcudia Park in Playa de Muro to rented houses, cater to the numerous wishes of travellers.

Question 6: Agriculture

All farming systems have inputs, processes and outputs. Name an area where small-scale subsistence farming takes place. Describe the inputs, processes and outputs of this farming system.

Shifting cultivation in the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil

File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
Map of Brazil
  • Shifting cultivation is practised by tribes such as Yanomami,who live in rural areas in Northern Brazil, eg. in the state of Roraima
  • These tribes clear the land by slash and burn methods (using hand tools such as machetes to cut down the rainforest vegetation, which is then burnt to add fertiliser to the soil.
  • The soil is turned over by hand (simple ploughing ) and the seeds are planted.
  • The areas are watered and weeded daily by hand until the crops are ready to be harvested using a sickle.
  • Outputs include root vegetables such as cassava, which are used to feed the family/tribe and are not sold.
  • As the plot of land loses its fertility, the area is abandoned and left to nature, allowing the original vegation to occur, while the tribe moves to another plot of land for 3-5 years.

Paper 12:

Question 1: Migration

Name an example of a city or country to which large numbers of people have migrated from
other countries. Describe the effects of international migration on your chosen city or country.

USA

  • Augmentation of skilled labour supply due to immigration of foreign doctors from Europe
  • Large pool of unskilled labour available for work that locals are not willing to do eg. on vegetable farms in Central Valley
  • Immigration has increased cultural understanding, as foreign traditions are shared with the local community.
  • Special amenities are provided to the country eg. Mexican restaurants
  • Racial conflict between Mexican immigratns and other citizens, in part due to competion for jobs in cities such as Los Angeles.
  • Pressure on housing system as more people are looking for a place of residence

Question 2: Urban areas

Many towns and cities are growing rapidly. With reference to a named urban area which you have studied, describe the problems in its rural-urban fringe which are being caused by its growth.

Nottingham

File:GreaterNottingham-map.png
Map of Nottingham, © Plamen Agov, studiolemontree.com
  • Traffic congestion on radial roads into city as a result of commuters from villages like Burton Joyce
  • Loss of farmland around Ruddington due to the development of an industrial park
  • Atmospheric pollution from increased traffic along A60
  • Destruction of Edwalton Forest (fringe forest) as a result of housing developments

Question 3: River

Explain how and why a delta is formed in an area which you have studied.

Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in India and Bangladesh

  • River velocity decreased in the lower course due to gentler slopes and lateral erosion
  • Deposition of sediments occured, further aided by the absense of tidal currents at the mouth of the Ganges river
  • Salt water in the river estuary led to flocculation of particles
  • Growth of vegetation raised the accumulations of sediments above the water level
  • Distributaries form as water branches to reach the Bay of Bengal

Question 4: Plate tectonics

For a named area of tropical desert you have studied, explain why and how it is at risk from
human activities.

Thar desert, India

Thar Desert, by Globalhistorycullen, License: CC BY-SA 3.0
  • The Thar Desert is threatened by excessive irrigation which leads to salinization. Therefore plants can not take up water from th soil, as the soil has greater concentrations of solute than the roots.
  • Soil quality is also decreasing as manure is used as an alternative fuel for firewood rather than to sustain nutrient-rich, fertile soils.
  • Furthermore, population pressure results in overcultivation and overgrazing, especially around cities like Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, damaging the natural vegetation.
  • The desert environment is also threatened by tourist attractions such as dune bashing. The toyotarisation disturbs animals, kills vegetation and creates dust stroms.
  • Also, tourists may dump waste in the desert, poisoning flora and fauna.

Question 5: Energy

Identify a form of energy and describe how its use threatens the natural environment in a
named country or area which you have studied.

Poland
https://i0.wp.com/ian.macky.net/pat/map/pl/pl_blk.gif

  • The combustion of coal for generating over three quarters of Poland`s electricity pollutes the atmosphere with gases such as carbon dioxide, leading to acid rain that damages forests in the Tatra mountains and kills aquatic life of the Baltic Sea.
  • Extraction of coal from opencast mines around Katowice destroys landscape, and vegetation is killed due to deforestation to access the fuel.
  • Greenhouse gases are emitted in the process, and enhance global warming, which causes the polar ice caps to melt and the sea level to rise, resulting in flooding of areas of coastal lowland such as the Maldives.

Question 6: Agriculture

All farming systems have inputs, processes and outputs. Name an area where large-scale commercial farming takes place. Describe the inputs, processes and outputs of this farming system.

Wheat farming in the Canadian Prairies

  • Around 2 million km² are available in the states of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan to grow a wide variety of cereals, including wheat.
  • The deep, fertile Chernozem soils are ideal for these crops, and the sub-zero temperatures (cold climate) in winter break up the soil to ease ploughing.
  • Little labour is required as large machinery such as tractors and a combine harvester can be used for harvesting.
  • Cereal crops are exported for bread making through the Great Lakes.

Paper 13:

Question 1: Population growth

For a country which you have studied, explain why the rate of natural population growth is low.

Francehttps://i0.wp.com/ian.macky.net/pat/map/fben/fbenblk2.gif

  • Contraception is easily available even in rural area such as Massif Central as there
    are family planning clinics
  • The emancipation of women has caused many  (particularly in urban areas such as Paris) to be more career minded and delay starting a family.
  • The cost of raising children is comparatively high, and many people prefer to leada more luxurious life (ie. have a higher standard of living), attaining this by not having children, so they can spend more money on other activities.
  • The death rate is low due to good health care, so women do not feel inclined to have more children, as they know that their children are likely to survive.

Question 2: Migration

In all towns and cities there have been changes in land use in recent years. These include the
development of transport, areas of housing, industries, leisure and shopping facilities.
Briefly describe one recent change in land use in or close to a town or city which you have
studied. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this change in land use for the people
who live in the town or city.

Arkadia shopping mall, Warsaw

  • The Arkadia covers a total area of 287000m², and at the time of its construction, it was the biggest shopping mall in Europe.
  • The Arkadia offers people greater shopping choice including Lacoste, Gant, Peek&Cloppenburg and Tommy Hilfiger, as well as high street chains like Zara, Espirit and Kappahl.
  • The Arkadia is easily accessible as it is served by 15 bus routes and 10 tram lines, as well as having 4000 free parking spaces for cars, however, the increase in transporation has increased traffic congestion on roads to the centre.

Question 3: Hazards

In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people.
Choose an example of one of the following:
a flood,
a tropical storm,
a drought.
For a named area, describe the causes of the hazard which you have chosen.

Lynmouth floods

Lynmouth is located east of Ilfracombe
  • Thunderstorms associated with frontal depression formed torrential rain, 229 mm fell near Longstone Barrow on Exmoor
  • Land was already saturated from previous rainfall as it had rained for 12 of the
    previous 14 days.
  • Impermeable rocks of Exmoor encouraged overland flow, rapidly raising river levels.
  • The situation was worsened by river divergion and narrowing of the channel to build hotels in Lynmouth.
  • Bridges over river trapped boulders and formed temporary dams.

Question 4: Rivers

Choose a named example of one of the following:
an area of mountains,
a fast-flowing river,
a flood plain.
Describe the ways in which your chosen type of natural environment can provide opportunities
for the people who live there.

Montmorency River, Quebec, Canada

  • Scenic beauty e.g. waterfall at Montmorency Falls attracts tourists, which has allowed for the growth of employment opportunities in tourist industries.
  • The river is dammed to provide HEP for Quebec City, and the provision of renewable energy has attracted other industries (multiplier effect) such as the smelting industries at the confluence with the St. Lawrence river.
  • Montmorency can also be used for transport of bulky goods, such as the logs from upper reaches to the sawmills near Quebec.

Question 5: Industry

Name an example of an area where manufacturing or processing industry has been located
and explain the factors which have attracted this type of industry to the area.

PakSteels, Pakistan Iron and Steel Industry

  • A large plot of flat, cheap land was available at Pipri, near Gharo Creek.
  • Port Qasim (which has a natural harbour) and the Karachi-Pipri-Kotri railway (and metalled roads network) allowed for the import of iron ore.
  • Energy could be obtained from Pipri Thermal Power Station and Karachi Nuclear Power Station, while water for making steel was brought from Lake Haleji
  • Labour was available from Karachi and the USSR provided economic assistance (technical expertise and capital)
  • The area was also close to a market, with many steel-using industries (including tool making) in Karachi

Question 6: Tourism

For a named area which you have studied, explain why the tourist industry has developed
there. You should refer to the area’s natural and built attractions.

Majorca, Spain

Majorca (Balearic Islands), by Hansen CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers with average temperatures at least
    25 °C and mild winters with no frost and snow
  • Sandy beaches and warm water in the Mediterranean sea allow for activities such as sunbathing, swimming and water sports.
  • Historical buildings such as the cathedral at Palma may attract visitors willing to explore the local culture.
  • Enterntainment facilities have been built to add to the natural attractions, eg. Marineland (theme park) in Calvia
  • Various types of accomodation, ranging from resorts such as Iberostar Alcudia Park in Playa de Muro to rented houses, cater to the numerous wishes of travellers.
Advertisements