Paper 11:

Question 1: Population structure -HIV/AIDS

The size and structure of the population in a country may change as a result of HIV/AIDS.
For a country which you have studied, describe the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the population
and economy.


  • Malawi has an HIV presence of 14% among adults (more among pregnant women and in urban areas)
  • Deaths of people in productive age groups has resulted in a loss of labour. Consequently, households shift to cultivating less labour intensive crops, such as Cassava or pulling children out of school to work on the subsistence farms.
  • HIV/AIDS reduced Malawi’s population growth, as widespread fear for contamination reduced sexual intercourse
  • Increased need for HIV/AIDS related expenditures, particularly medicine, has lead to growth of the health care sector.

Question 2: Squatter settlements

Another urban problem is the growth of squatter settlements.
Name a city in an LEDC and describe what has been done to improve the quality of life for the people who live in squatter settlements there.

File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
Map of Brazil

Rio de Janiero

  • In Rio de Janiero, 1 in 6 people live in favelas such as Rocinha
  • Favela dwellers have been granted property rights, thus encouraging the residents to take over responsibility for their living standards; and governments have invested in low cost housing.
  • Water mains and sewage systems have been developed to provide residents with clean drinking water and reduce the spread of disease
  • A trash collection scheme has been put into place, allowing residents to trade a bag of litter for a gallon of milk.
  • Education and crime prevention scheme: children are encouraged to trade toy guns for books to improve literacy and promote peaceful living

Question 3: Coasts

Explain how and why a delta has formed in a named area which you have studied.

Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in India and Bangladesh

  • River velocity decreased in the lower course due to gentler slopes and lateral erosion
  • Deposition of sediments occured, further aided by the absense of tidal currents at the mouth of the Ganges river
  • Salt water in the river estuary led to flocculation of particles
  • Growth of vegetation raised the accumulations of sediments above the water level
  • Distributaries form as water branches to reach the Bay of Bengal

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

Tropical storms are a type of natural hazard. Explain why the effects of tropical storms of the same strength are likely to be greater in an LEDC than an MEDC. Refer to examples which you have studied.

USA and Bangladesh

  • MEDC’s invest in educating the general public, for example by means of the Hurricane Preparedness Week in the USA, when schools, businesses and families are encouraged to plan for possible strikes in the forthcoming hurricane season
  • MEDC’s can afford to train emergency staff (eg. by practising rescuing people from flooded areas with helicopters)
  • MEDC buildings are likely to be made of stronger materials and are therefore less likely to be destroyed
  • MEDCs have warning systems such as satellites and specially equipped aircraft, to predict and monitor the occurrence of storms.
  • LEDC’s may rely on international aid from MEDC’s for the rescue and recovery process, as was the case with Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh, November 2007.

Question 5: Pollution

Human activities may cause water and air pollution. Choose an example which you have studied of either water pollution or air pollution. Describe the causes of this pollution and its effects on people and the environment.

North Sea

  • Oil spills from ships cause oil to clog up the gills of fish, resulting in suffocation
  • Tankers washing out their tanks in the Thames estuary have polluted beaches along the Essex coast, reducing the number of tourist visits in the area
  • Indstrial waste from the Ruhr valley (Germany) is dumped into the North Sea via the Rhine river and threatens human health along the coast of Rotterdam

Question 6: Water

Describe how people can be provided with a reliable supply of safe drinking water. You should
refer to an area or country which you have studied.

South Africa

  • Wolwedans Dam provides retains water after rainy periods to supply Mossel Bay with water
  • A Veolia desalination plant removes salt from the ocean to provide 10 megalitres of water to the Mossel Bay Municipality.
  • Wells have been built to obtain water from aquifer
  • Cloud seeding by spraying silver iodide into the atmosphere has increased rainfall during extended periods of drought.

Paper 12:

Question 1: Population growth

The size and structure of the population in a country may change as a result of government
policies. For a named country which you have studied, describe the policies which have been used by the government to influence rates of natural population growth.


  • The One Family One Child Policy was implemented from 1979 to 2015 to reduce rapid population growth and lessen overpopulation.
  • Families were incentivised to have no more than one child, by means of free contraception, salary bonuses and preferential employment, free healthcare and schooling.
  • Couples who did not adhere to the policy were penalised financially (fines of up to US$400 and salary reduction) and were often forced to abort their babes even in the late stages of pregnancy.
  • The policy managed to reduce China’s fertility rate to 1.7, thereby preventing food shortages and extreme poverty; however, a preference for boys promoted female foeticide and has resulted in an imbalanced sex ratio

Question 2: CBD

For a named urban area which you have studied, describe the main features of its Central
Business District (CBD).


  • A vast section of London’s CBD is pedestrianised, including market squares such as Covent Garden.
  • Higher order shops and services are found along major streets like Oxford Street
  • Indoor malls such as Westfield London offer department stores (eg. Harrods) and specialised services such as jewellers.
  • In the West End there are enterntainment facilities such as cinemas and theatres
    high rise buildings such as offices of major companies

Question 3: River

Describe the advantages and difficulties for people of living on a river delta. You should refer
to a delta which you have studied.

Ganges-Brahmaputra delta

  • The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, which stretches from its source in the Himalaya to its mouth in the Bay of Bengal, is the most populous river delta in the world.
  • Around 30% of its population work in agriculture, as rice cultivation is well developed due to the fertile soils.
  • The area is also very attractive due to the abundant supply of water for domestic and industrial activities eg. washing.
  • Besides, shrimps live in the distributaries of the delta, allowing residents to make a living off fishing.
  • However, the Ganges Delta is threatened by floods, especially from heavy rainfall during the monsoon season and icewater runoff from the slopes of the Himalaya.

Question 4: Plate tectonics

Explain the causes of an earthquake which occurred in a named area which you have studied.

Haiti earthquake

  • On January 12th 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti; its epicentre was just 25km SW of the country’s capital, Port-au-Prince.
  • The earthquake was caused occurred along the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault, a line of weakness running parallel to the margin that separates the North American and Caribbean plate.
  • Pressure had built up along the strike-slip fault as the plate had been locked for 250 years, allowing pressure to build up.
  • Suddenly, the plates moved past each other in an east-west direction, releasing energy.
  • The shallow focus of the earthquake further increased the degree of shaking at the surface, and thereby the impacts for the local community.

Question 5: Industry

Name an area where either manufacturing or processing industry is important and give an
example of a type of industry (or factory) which you have studied in that area. Explain the
reasons for its growth at that location.

PakSteels, Pakistan Iron and Steel Industry

  • A large plot of flat, cheap land was available at Pipri, near Gharo Creek.
  • Port Qasim (which has a natural harbour) and the Karachi-Pipri-Kotri railway (and metalled roads network) allowed for the import of iron ore.
  • Energy could be obtained from Pipri Thermal Power Station and Karachi Nuclear Power Station, while water for making steel was brought from Lake Haleji
  • Labour was available from Karachi and the USSR provided economic assistance (technical expertise and capital)
  • The area was also close to a market, with many steel-using industries (including tool making) in Karachi

Question 6: Agriculture

Many areas have a shortage of water supplies. Describe the likely impacts of a water shortage
on the people and development of a named area which you have studied.


  • Crops die as a result of insufficient irrigation due to a lack of water and lack of fodder crops increases cattle deaths.
  • Consequently, starvation may occur due to lack of food supply, increasing hunger-related deaths.
  • Limited access to water hampers industrial activities such as textile production in Addis Ababa. This means that less textile can be sold at the market, so less money is distributed in the economy, potentially leading to decline in other sectors as well.
  • Besides, as people are forced to use the same water for multiple purposes (eg. washing and bathing), diseases such as typhoid are more likely to occur.

Paper 13:

Question 1: Population growth

For a country which you have studied, explain why the government is worried about its rapid
population growth.


  • Population growth resulted in overcrowded areas with traffic congestion as there are too many vehicles on the the roads, especially in cities such as Dhaka.
  • Inadequate food supply causes death by malnutrition, and poor management strategies lead to overcultivation on the flood plains of the Ganges river, causing lower yields and soil erosion.
  • Soil erosion also occurs due to widespread deforestation for firewood on the slopes of the Himalayas.
  • Furthermore, housing shortages and poverty force many people to live on the streets in urban areas such as Chittagong.
  • Poor access to education means that people remain unqualified, and overcrowding in hospitals decreased national health.

Question 2: Migration

Choose an example of rural to urban migration in an LEDC which you have studied. Name the
areas between which people moved and explain why many people migrated. You should refer
both to pull and to push factors.

Caatinga to Rio de Janiero, Brazil

  • Farmland in Caatinga (NE Brazil) is unproductive due to drought and fertile land was lost due to the construction of reservoirs along the Sao Francisco River. Reduced crop yields lead to widespread poverty and farmers are struggling to make a living, so they seek better opportunities elsewhere.

    File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
    Map of Brazil
  • Caatinga relies heavily on the primary sector, so poor agricultural activity leads to low circulation of money and hampers development in other sectors. Therefore, few residents to have access to basic amenities.
  • People are attracted to urban areas such as Rio de Janiero and Sao Paulo, as they provide employment in the informal sector eg. selling fruit on the Copacabana beach
  • Also, housing standards are better in urban areas, with even favelas such as Rocinha offering better primary health care.

Question 3: Coasts

For an area you have studied, describe the benefits and problems of living near the coast

Californian coast

  • The coastal area allows for people to live off the primary sector, eg. inshore fishing
  • Economies have developed about ports like Oakland, which deals with transcontinental container traffic (from Japan, Hong Kong and China)
  • Tourism has developed in San Fransico, providing employment in restaurants aong the Old Fisherman’s Wharf
  • However, coasts are threatened by storms that damage housing and result in flooding.
  • Erosion can contribute to the collapse of cliff top buildings in Cambria and estuaries have to be bridged by the Golden Gate Bridge.

Question 4: Weather, Climate & Ecosystems

For an area of tropical desert which you have studied, describe and explain the characteristics
of its natural vegetation.

Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India

Thar Desert, by Globalhistorycullen, License: CC BY-SA 3.0
  • Vegetation in the Thar desert is sparse and scattered, as only few species are adapted to survive in the exteme climate.
  • The Ber tree has a rapidly developing taproot system to survive in drought conditions; however, vegetaion is mostly limited to thorny bushes and shrubs.
  • Cacti have thick stems to store water during dry spells, and lack leaves to reduce evapotranspiration. Instead, they are equipped with spikes as a protection against predators.
  • Xerophilious grass has a small surface area to reduce water loss.
  • Flowering plants have seeds that remain dormant during dry spells.

Question 5: Energy

For a country or area which you have studied, describe the problems for people and the local
environment caused by using wood and charcoal as sources of energy.


  • Combustion of fuelwood pollutes the atmosphere with toxic gases such as CO2
  • Use of fuelwood in houses eg. for cooking and heating results in breathing problems
  • In squatter settlements in Bamako health hazards are especially severe with frequent carbon monoxide poisoning as a result of poor housing standards
  • Widespread deforestation for fuelwood forces the communities to travel an increasing distance to meet their energy demands.
  • Deforestation also destroys the savannah woodlands, with 11.2 % of forest disappearing in Mali between 1990 and 2010. Loss of tree cover promotes soil erosion

Question 6: Tourism

People can benefit when economic activities take place. Such activities include:
– transport,
– tourism,
– manufacturing industry.
Name an area which you have studied and describe an economic activity which takes place.
Explain how the activity benefits local people.

Tourism in Mahe, Seychelles

  • Tourism has created jobs for people in Beau Vallon Bay so they can earn a regular income (eg. as hotel staff)
  • Expansion of the tourist industry has lead to growth in other sectors eg. market for local farmers has increased as food is bought in Victoria by hotels and restaurants
  • Foreign exchange was spent on improving the water supply system to Anse Royale and the runway of the airport has been extended to meet international standards.
  • Tourism allows for cultural exchange, as residents meet with people of different nationalities, particularly from Europe.
  • The local tradions have been preserved, as they are tourist attractions eg. Creole cooking and cultural dances.
  • Artists can sell local crafts such as shells and corals.