Paper 11:

Question 1: Population growth

For a country which you have studied, explain why the rate of population growth is high.


  • Uganda has a population growth rate of more than 3% each year, due to its high birth rate of 44 births per 1000.
  • Low use of contraception due to limited access and poverty
  • Low education standards, especially among females
  • Low socio-economic status of women
  • Early marriage
  • Political statements may encourage more babies as some areas in Uganda have a low population density

Question 2: Migration

Name an example of a rural area in an LEDC from which many people have migrated. Explain
why many people have migrated from this area.


  • Farmland in Caatinga is unproductive due to drought

    File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
    Map of Brazil
  • Fertile land was lost due to the construction of reservoirs along the Sao Francisco River
  • Reduced crop yields lead to widespread poverty and farmers are struggling to make a living
  • Low circulation of money resulted in poor economic situation, causing few residents to have access to basic amenities
  • Urban areas such as Rio de Janiero and Sao Paulo provide employment in the informal sector eg. selling fruit on the Copacabana beach
  • Even favelas offer better primary health care

Question 3: Plate tectonics

Many people live in areas where earthquakes are likely to occur. Explain why people still live in a named area which you have studied which experiences earthquakes.

Kobe, Japan

  • The Japanese government has invested money in prediction and residents are willing to take the risk, as severe earthquakes are rare
  • Earthquake drills are carried out annually in all Japanese schools
  • The city offers good employment opportunities eg. in electronics factories
  • There are limited amounts of flat land in the surrounding area as much of Honshu island is mountainous

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

Name an area of tropical desert which you have studied. Describe and explain the main features of its climate.

Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India

  • The Thar desert has temperatures of up to 53°C in Summer and receives less than 250 mm of rainfall each year.
Thar Desert, by Globalhistorycullen License: CC BY-SA 3.0
  • The hot climate may be attributed to the location its location in the Tropic of Cancer, where the curving of the Earth is low, so heat and light enetering the atmosphere is concentrated.
  • Large diurnal temperature range due to the absence of clouds
  • High pressure results in descending air which warms and can hold more moisture (no condensation occurs)
  • NE trade winds blow over continental Asia before reaching the desert, hence there is no source of moisture

Question 5: Industry

For any one type of power station, describe and explain the factors which influence its location. You should refer to an example which you have studied.

Coal power stations in the Ruhr valley, Germany

  • Ore was easily accessible and could be extracted by strip mining
  • Water supplies from the Ruhr and Rhine rivers could be used for cooling
  • Good transport was available by eg. steam train “Steele-Vohwinkeler-Bahn” and by shipping on the rivers
  • Large market for electricity by steelworks companies in cities as Duisburg

Question 6: Environment/global warming

Describe the likely effects of global warming on people and the natural environment. You
should refer to named areas.

  • Polar ice melts, destroying the Arctic and Antarctic habitats, threatening polar bears (Arctic) and penguins (Antarctic)
  • Rise in sea level may cause flooding of coastal lowland areas such as the Netherlands
  • Increased temperatures can reduce snowfall in Alps, thereby threatening winter sports industries
  • Crops such as vines can be grown in areas in Southern England which were not previously hot or sunny enough
  • Tropical diseases may spread towards the poles eg. malaria in southern EuropeFile:Effects of global warming, plotted against changes in global mean temperature.png

Paper 12:

Question 1: Population growth

For a country or area which you have studied, describe and explain variations in the population density.


  • The North is sparsely populated due to lacking water supply for domestic and agricultural use.
  • The South is densely populated due to the proximity to international boundaries (eg. Ivory Coast) for trade and the south is better served by transport and communications such as the airport at Bamako
  • The valley of the Niger river is densely populated as it is an attractive area to settle due to the fertility and gentle profile of the land.

Question 2: Urban growth

For a named urban area, describe the impacts of its growth on the environment.

New York City

  • Water pollution of Newtown Creek by oil spillages from a local oil company (which later became Exxon Mobil) during the 1950s has damaged wildlife
  • Air pollution from the large number of vehicles
  • Destruction of wetlands for the development of suburbs such as Westchester County

Question 3: Plate tectonics

For a named example of an earthquake which you have studied, describe its short-term and
long-term impacts.

Haiti earthquake, 2010

(even though this was asked in 2009, I included a recent example for you to use in your studies)

  • File:Haiti Quake Map.pngA 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti on January 12th, 2010; its epicentre was merely 25 km from Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince. The major earthquake was followed by several aftershocks up to a magnitude of 5.0 on the Richter scale.
  • The earthquake resulted in massive loss of life (approximately 230,000 deaths)
  • 180,000 homes and around 5,00 schools were destroyed
  • Damage at the airport delayed international aid by over 24 hours. This meant that people were forced to drink polluted water, promoting the spread of diseases suchas cholera.
  • 1 in 5 people lost their jobs because so many buildings were destroyed.  Haiti’s largest industry, clothing was one of the worst affected


Kobe earthquake

(not recent, but was studied at the time)

  • Large areas of the central city were set alight by fires staring from broken gas pipes
  • The Hanshin expressway, a main route through Kobe, collapsed onto the road below, because the road crossed areas of softer ground where shaking was stronger and lasted longer.
  • the port area was particularly badly affected as it had been constructed on two artificial islands that sufferred from liquefaction. The port had to be closed for two months, so trade had to be switched to other ports.
  •  Less cars were produced because of a shortage of parts which were made in Kobe, even forcing some plants to close down.

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

Describe and explain the impacts of human activities on the natural environment of a named
area of tropical rain forest which you have studied.

Tropical rainforest in Borneo
Island of Borneo: Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei
  • Trees are being cut down in Kalimantan for export of timbre for furniture-making and paper industries
  • Land is cleared in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) for the construction of a HEP plant and reservoir and in Kalimantan for the increase of the area of palm oil plantations
  • Deforestation results in a loss of habitat, threatening multiple species with extinction eg. reduction of the orang-utan population

 Question 5: Energy

Name an area or a country which you have studied where large amounts of fuelwood are used
for energy. Describe the problems this causes for local people and the natural environment.


  • Combustion of fuelwood pollutes the atmosphere with toxic gases such as CO2
  • Use of fuelwood in houses eg. for cooking and heating results in breathing problems
  • In squatter settlements in Bamako health hazards are especially severe with frequent carbon monoxide poisoning as a result of poor housing standards
  • Widespread deforestation for fuelwood forces the communities to travel an increasing distance to meet their energy demands.
  • Deforestation also destroys the savannah woodlands, with 11.2 % of forest disappearing in Mali between 1990 and 2010. Loss of tree cover promotes soil erosion.

Question 6: Industry

Name an area where high technology industry has been located and explain the factors which
attracted this type of industry to the area.

Silicon Valley

  • Datei:Bay Area Map de.pngSanta Clara Valley, was a largely unpopulated agricultural area at the end of WW2, with cheap land and a great city nearby
  • Graduates from nearby Stanford university were encouraged to start their own companies; enterprises and start-ups now obtain their high quality workforce via their alumni network
  • Universities such as Berkeley provide research facilities
  • Large urban market in nearby town such as San Francisco and airports to cater overseas markets
  • Agglomeration of companies to share ideas and technology
  • Excellent landscape eg. Santa Cruz Mountains