Paper 11:

Question 1: Population density

For a named area which you have studied, explain why it has a low population density.

Canada

  • Canada has a population density of 3.87 people per km², due to its small population of 35 million and its vast landmass.
  • Its high latitude location provides the country with a cold, Arctic climate that limits agricultural activities.
  • Rugged terrain and steep slopes eg. Rocky Mountains make construction of houses more difficult/expensive
  • Snow and ice during winter disturb transport and communications

Question 2: Urban areas

In many urban areas there are problems of housing shortages.
Name an urban area which you have studied where there is a shortage of houses.
Describe:
• the causes of this problem
• attempts which have been made to solve the problem

Rio de Janiero, Brazil

  • High rates of immigration from NE Brazil (Caatinga) exert pressure on housing facilities

    File:Hypothetical Anglophone Brazil.png
    Map of Brazil
  • Lack of building land (due to surrounding mountains) and low taxation prevent the funding of housing infrastructure
  • Living conditions in favelas have been improved to reduce the problem eg. laying sewage pipes in Rocinha
  • Tarred roads have been built to shanty towns on mountain slopes.
  • Site and service schemes and the provision of low cost building materials to allow residents to improve their living conditions
  • Hospitals and schools have been developed to educate children and improve health.

Question 3: Coasts

Explain how and why coastal sand dunes have formed in a named area which you have
studied. You may use a labelled diagram or diagrams in your answer.

Ynyslas Dunes, Dyfed (UK)

  • ynyslas dunesWesterly onshore winds from Cardigan Bay blow dry sand up the beach at the estuary of the Dovey (Dyfi) river during low tide.
  • Sand deposits as the energy of the winds is reduced on land due to greater friction
  • Obstructions on the beach provide a sheltered area for sand to accumulate
  • Over time, vegetation such as Marram grass colonises dunes and traps further sand.
  • Sand dune succession (embryo dune becomes a yellow dune and then a grey dune)

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people. Choose an
example of one of the following:
• tropical storm
• flooding
• drought
For a named area, explain the causes of the hazard which you have chosen and describe its
impacts on people living there.

Hurricane Katrina  (tropical storm), USA

  • Landfall of Hurricane Katrina: Case Study Map

    Tropical depression SE of the Bahamas and a storm wave

  • Depression drifted towards Florida over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico
  • Higher water temperatures provided energy to the storm, which made landfall in Florida
  • Second landfall occurred in Louisiana
  • Levees failed to resist the force of the storm surge in New Orleans, leading to widespread flooding
  • More than 1000 deaths, and 0.5 million houses damaged
  • Services were disrupted: no electricity and gas in New Orleans for up to 6 months after the incident

OR

Flooding- River Lyn (UK)

  • Thunderstorms associated with frontal depression formed torrential rain – 229 mm fell near Longstone Barrow on Exmoor
  • The soil was already saturated from previous rainfall as it had rained for 12 of the
    previous 14 days
  • Impermeable rocks at Exmoor encouraged overland flow and rapidly
    raising river levels
  • Channel diversion and narrowingfor the building of hotels in Lynmouth meant that the river could hold less water
  • Bridges across the river trapped boulders and formed temporary dams
  • 34 people drowned, 130 cars and 19 boats destroyed

Question 5: Industry

High technology industries are science-based industries such as aerospace, pharmaceuticals,
computers, and manufacture of communication equipment and scientific instruments.
For a named country or area which you have studied, explain why high technology industries
were located there.

Malaysiahttps://i1.wp.com/ian.macky.net/pat/map/my/my_blu.gif

  • Skilled, highly qualified workforce can be obtained from nearby universities
  • good motorway links to transport components/finished products
  • The proximity to Kuala Lumpur International Airport allows for business travel
  • Government investment into planned high tech industrial areas such as at Penang (Silicon Island) and the government’s ‘technology action plan’ have encouraged the gowth of high technology industries due to increased market demand

Question 6: Agriculture

There are large scale food shortages in some countries.
These may be the result of:
• physical factors
• economic factors
• political factors
For an area or country which you have studied, explain why there are food shortages.

Ethiopia

  • Drought which extends into neighbouring Eritrea reduced crop yields
  • Lack of fodder crops to feed cattle causes cattle to die, especially in the northern reigion of Tigray
  • Death of cattle as well as a lack of food crops results in food shortages. This is particularly problematic as more than 83% of the population live in rural areas and rely heavily on subsistence farming
  • The situation is worsened by overcultivation (fields are not given fallow time) and overgrazing (too many cattle on a plot of land)
  • Lack of investment in irrigation and use of traditional farming practices (eg. ploughing up and down slopes) encourages soil erosion
  • Distribution of food is poorly managed by the government

Paper 12:

Question 1: Population growth

For a named area which you have studied, explain why it has a low population density.

Canada

  • Canada has a population density of 3.87 people per km², due to its small population of 35 million and its vast landmass.
  • Its high latitude location provides the country with a cold, Arctic climate that limits agricultural activities.
  • Rugged terrain and steep slopes eg. Rocky Mountains make construction of houses more difficult/expensive
  • Snow and ice during winter disturb transport and communications

Question 2: Traffic congestion

In many urban areas there are problems of traffic congestion.
Name an urban area which you have studied where there is traffic congestion.
Describe:
• the causes of this problem
• attempts which have been made to solve the problem

London

  • London is densely populated so a lack of open spaces renders it difficult to improve the road system
  • Large number of commuters from suburban areas to work in the city creates traffic jams in the mornings and evenings
  • The M25 motorway was built around London to prevent all traffic from passing through
  • The underground railway system was expanded by building new lines like Docklands Light Railway
  • A congestion free is charged for entry to the central area and out of town parking spaces have been built to encourage park-and-ride opportunities and carpooling
  • Bicycle lanes and footpaths have been developed to allow people to travel not only by car or public transport, especially for short distances

Question 3: Coasts

Name an area which you have studied where a coral reef has formed. Describe the conditions
which have led to its formation.

File:Wikitravel QLD Map.jpg

The Great Barrier Reef,  Australia

  • The coral reef developed in the Western Pacific Ocean on the island remains of the Great Dividing Range, around 6000 years ago
  • The islands provided shallow conditions (less than 20 metres deep) for the growth of coral, allowing sunlight to penetrate and thereby enabling algae to grow (algae are required for the symbiotic ecosystem)
  • Warm water termperatures of at least 20° Celsius along the Pacific shores encouraged the development of coral on the east coast of Australia eg. near Cairns
  • Eventually sea level rise caused the islands to be submerged but the coral remains today, seperated from the shore by a wide lagoon

Question 4: Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people. Choose an
example of one of the following:
• tropical storm
• flooding
• drought
For a named area, explain the causes of the hazard which you have chosen and describe its
impacts on people living there.

Hurricane Katrina

  • Path of Hurricane Katrina (US landfall

    Tropical depression SE of the Bahamas and a storm wave

  • Depression drifted towards Florida over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico
  • Higher water temperatures provided energy to the storm, which made landfall in Florida
  • Second landfall occurred in Louisiana
  • Levees failed to resist the force of the storm surge in New Orleans, leading to widespread flooding
  • More than 1000 deaths, and 0.5 million houses damaged
  • Services were disrupted: no electricity and gas in New Orleans for up to 6 months after the incident

OR

Flooding- River Lyn

  • Thunderstorms associated with frontal depression formed torrential rain – 229 mm fell near Longstone Barrow on Exmoor
  • The soil was already saturated from previous rainfall as it had rained for 12 of the
    previous 14 days
  • Impermeable rocks at Exmoor encouraged overland flow and rapidly
    raising river levels
  • Channel diversion and narrowingfor the building of hotels in Lynmouth meant that the river could hold less water
  • Bridges across the river trapped boulders and formed temporary dams
  • 34 people drowned, 130 cars and 19 boats destroyed

Question 5: Industry

High technology industries are science-based industries such as aerospace, pharmaceuticals,
computers, and manufacture of communication equipment and scientific instruments.
For a named country or area which you have studied, explain why high technology industries
were located there.

Silicon Valley

  • Datei:Bay Area Map de.pngSanta Clara Valley, was a largely unpopulated agricultural area at the end of WW2, with cheap land and a great city nearby
  • Graduates from nearby Stanford university were encouraged to start their own companies; enterprises and start-ups now obtain their high quality workforce via their alumni network
  • Universities such as Berkeley provide research facilities
  • Large urban market in nearby town such as San Francisco and airports to cater overseas markets
  • Agglomeration of companies to share ideas and technology
  • Excellent landscape eg. Santa Cruz Mountains

Question 6: Tourism

For a named area which you have studied, explain why the tourist industry has developed
there. You should refer to the area’s physical and human attractions.

Algarve, Portugal

  • The Algarve has an appealing climate with long hours of sunshine especially from June to September. Temperatures average at over 20°C during the summer months when rainfall is low
  • Natural attractions such as the cliffs at Lagos provide a spectacular view and sandy bays are ideal for sunbathing
  • Resorts like Albufeira with restaurants allow visitors to spend multiple nights in the region
  • Good transportation has been developed to meet visitors demands, including a network of tarred roads and Faro airport for international travel

 

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