Question 1: Population structure

For a country which you have studied, explain why the government is concerned by an ageing

Map of the UK
  • Percentage of elderly dependents (+65 years) increased by 3% from 15% in 1980 to 18% in 2013
  • Strain on the working population as there are less economically active people per old dependent
  • Government-funded pensions may have to shrink, leaving some people in poverty
  • Higher taxation may be required to fund care homes/other specialist facilities
  • Lack of workforce as previously low birth rates have led to a small economically active population
  • Services for young people eg. schools are underused
  • lack of people to join national defences (eg. military, navy)

Question 2: Squatter settlements

Name an urban area in an LEDC where there are squatter settlements. Describe what has
been done to improve the quality of life for the people who live in these settlements.

Rio de Janiero

  • 1 in 6 people in Rio de Janiero live in favela’s, such as Rocinha
  • Attempts have been made to grant residents property rights to their houses that have been built illegally on mountainous slopes are at risk of land slides
  • Housing materials have been improved by site and service schemes and electricity and water supplies have been developed
  • Improvement of living condition in favelas eg. laying sewage pipes in Rocinha
  • Trash collection scheme allows residents to trade a bag of trash for a gallon of milk
  • Education scheme allows children to trade toy guns for books, thus improving literacy and reducing violence

Question 3: Hazards

Name an area which you have studied where drought occurs.
Describe the problems experienced by people living in your chosen area.


Map of Ethiopia, by rei-arthur
  • Drought which extends into neighbouring Eritrea reduced crop yields
  • Lack of fodder crops to feed cattle causes cattle to die leaving families with too little to eat in a country
  • Death of cattle and failure of crops is problematic, as more than 83% of the population live in rural areas and rely heavily und subsistence farming
  • An estimated 6 million children suffer from severe undernourishment and around 10 million people are in acute need of international food aid
  • More than 1 million children have stopped going to school to support their families in search for food and water

Question 4: Rivers

For a named river which you have studied, explain the causes of flooding.

Map of Ganges river, by Pfly

Ganges River

  • Heavy rainfall during the monsoon season
  • Icewater runoff from the slopes of the Himalaya is not intercepted by vegetation due to widespread deforestation for fuelwood
  • Rapid overland flow occurs as soils are already saturated with water
  • River levels are rapidly raised as water runs off the slopes in drains into the river from the surrounding land

Question 5: Tourism

Name an area which you have studied where the tourist industry is important. Describe what
has been done in the area to maintain, improve and conserve the quality of the environment.


Map of Spain – Menorca is shown in the Meditteranean, by Kelisi
  • Tourist numbers have been restricted by dealing with a limited number of tourist firms
  • Buildings over 2 storeys are not allowed to be built within 250 m of the coast
  • An eco-tax raises money for environmental protection eg.  the Biosphere Reserve
  • Areas were fenced off and walking paths have been developed in S’Albufera des Grau (a wetlands reserve area)

Question 6: Energy

For a country or area which you have studied, describe the ways in which renewable energy
supplies are being developed.


  • Onshore and offshore wind parks have been developed in Northern Germany eg. near Apelnstedt, Lower Saxony
  • The government funds the development of solar panels on rooftops
  • Geothermal power sector is expanding since the first power plant was built in 2003 in Neustadt-Glewe
  • Hydroelectric power is generated along dams eg. the Walchensee Dam in Bavaria which generated 300MW of electricity in 2010