Question 1: Migration

Choose any example of international migration which you have studied and name the countries between which people moved. Explain why many people made the decision to migrate. You should refer both to pull and to push factors.

The Syrian Refugee Migration: from Syria to Germany

  • 13 million Syrians
  • 800,000 registered in Germany in 2015
  • Threatened by barrel bombings and shootings: destruction of houses, loss of life (family members killed)
  • Many face political persecution: government tortures civilians
  • Others are fleeing from religious persecution: radical groups such as IS (which has trained child soldiers and performed extra-judicial executions)
  • Many refugees seek asylum in Germany
  • Germany protects and promotes human rights: provides food, shelter, education
  • Germany is economically stable: low unemployment rate, good job market, good career chances as a result of an ageing population

Question 2: Urban sprawl

The building of new housing, roads and services often results in urban sprawl. Name an example of a town or city which you have studied where urban sprawl has taken place. Describe its effects on people and the natural environment.


Map of Nottingham, © Plamen Agov,
  • Traffic congestion on radial roads into city: as a result of commuters from villages like Burton Joyce
  • Loss of farmland around Ruddington due to the development of an industrial park
  • Atmospheric pollution from increased traffic along A60
  • Destruction of Edwalton Forest (fringe forest) as a result of housing developments

Question 3: Ecosystems

Many areas of natural vegetation are at risk from human activities. Name either an area of tropical rain forest or tropical desert which you have studied and explain why and how it is at risk from human activities.

Map of Borneo
Map of Borneo, © By Peter Fitzgerald/Joelf

Tropical Rainforest in Borneo

  • Trees are being chopped down in Kalimantan for export of timber for furniture-making and paper industries
  • Clearance of land in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) for the construction of HEP plant and reservoir and in Kalimantan for palm oil plantations
  • Deforestation results in loss of habitat, reducing the orang-utan population and threatening other species with extinction

Question 4: Hazards

Many people live in areas where there are natural hazards such as:
• volcanic eruptions
• earthquakes
• tropical storms
• flooding
• drought
Name an area which you have studied and state the natural hazard(s) faced by the people
who live there. Explain why people live in the area.

Living near volcanoes, Iceland

  • Fertile volcanic soils support agriculture, especially the cultivation of fodder crops
  • Geothermal energy, eg. from Krafla Power Station, accounts for nearly one third of Iceland’s energy production and is used for heating houses and to provide a supply of electricity to local industries
  • Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and volcanic attractions such as the geysirs and hotsprings in Haukadalur provide opportunities for employment in tourism
  • Iceland’s government has invested into prediction techniques and residents are willing to take the risk

Question 5: Economic development

Human activities cause both benefits and problems for people and the natural environment. Name an area you have studied where one of the following activities is important:
• agriculture
• manufacturing industry
• energy production
Describe the benefits and problems to people and the natural environment from this activity in
your chosen area.

Pakistans Iron and Steel Industry

  • Pakistan’s largest industrial compley, PakSteels, creates jobs for people in the Karachi area (around 16,000 employees in total)
  • Import of steel by causes traffic congestion and heavy lorries increase noise levels for residents
  • Smoke from the combustion of iron ore increases levels of green house gases in the atmosphere
  • Exhaust fumes from ships importing iron via Port Qasim pollute the waterways

Question 6: Tourism

Name an area which you have studied where the tourist industry is important. Explain why the tourist industry has grown up in the area. You should refer in detail to the area’s physical and human attractions.


  • Canary climate: hot, dry summers with average temperatures of 25°C in August and warm winters (17-20°C)
  • Sandy beaches at resorts like Princesa Yaiza
  • Timanfaya National Park: volcanoes and the green lagune at El golfo
  • Historical buildings such as an ancient farmer’s house from 1840 and the castle of Guanapay